Wikipedia Backpropagation
abbreviation for "backward propagation of errors",
common method of training artificial neural networks used in conjunction with an optimization method such as gradient descent. The method calculates the gradient of a loss function with respect to all the weights in the network. The gradient is fed to the optimization method which in turn uses it to update the weights, in an attempt to minimize the loss function. Backpropagation requires a known, desired output for each input value in order to calculate the loss function gradient. It is therefore usually considered to be a supervised learning method. Backpropagation requires that the activation function used by the artificial neurons be differentiable.
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